Note: Words in blue are not tested for students with individual education plans.
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annex – to take over; to make part of one’s own land.
antebellum – occurring or existing before a particular war, especially the American Civil War.
destiny – an unavoidable course of events; an outcome that will occur no matter what.
economics – the study of production and business; the study of how money and value function and are distributed.
encroach – intrude on (a person’s territory or a thing considered to be a right).
expansionism – the policy of supporting the growth of the geographical boundaries of the US.
frontier – the extreme limit of settled land beyond which lies wilderness, especially referring to the western US before Pacific settlement.
homestead – a piece of land gained from United States public lands by living on and farming it; the act of gaining title to public land by living on and farming it.
manifest – readily perceived by the senses and especially by the sight; easily understood or recognized by the mind.
market – an area or arena in which commercial dealings are conducted.
spoils system – when a political leader rewards his supporters with jobs and benefits after winning an election.
subsistence farming – producing food or goods for one’s own consumption; usually related to farmers who live entirely off their own labor and produce.
suffrage – the right to vote in political elections.
textile – cloth, fabric, especially woven or knit.
trans-Mississippi – a common name of the geographic area west of the Mississippi River during the 19th century.
wage labor – the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells their work under a formal or informal employment contract, usually on an hourly basis.